عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Background and objectives: Scolymus is one of most abundant plants of mountain areas iran, Because of role in the digestion of food auxiliary is located the focus of attention consumers. In iran, more than 17 percent of crops in various stages of the supply becomes losses, which requires knowledge of physical properties, mechanical and hydrodynamic agricultural products. The existence of the information about the physical properties, mechanical and hydrodynamic of Scolymus can be widely used in the design of machines, transfer, separation, hydraulic grading, washing, quality inspection, Maintenance and processing. Because reduce crop losses and increase efficiency of operations to be processed scolymus.
Materials and methods: In this study, some physical properties, mechanical and hydrodynamic properties of Scolymus were measured in three replications under standard conditions. The physical properties including length, width, thickness, geometric and arithmetic mean diameter, mass, volume, density, sphericity, surface area, aspect ratio and moisture content on wet basis were measured. The mechanical properties of the samples when shear and bending (break), of Scolymus from the middle of its length measured by Instron machine Zwick/Roell under required standards. The hydrodynamic properties for the transfer, sorting and grading of scolymus were carried by water.
Results: The physical properties of length, width, thickness, mass, volume and geometric mean diameter direct relationship and density (density) an inverse relation with the size of the Scolymus. Shape, size, volume, surface and density are among the physical properties that are important in many issues related to the design of a specific machine or in analysis of obtained behaviors in transporting material. for Mechanical properties in bending tested elastic modulus, maximum force needed to bending Scolymus, work done to achieve maximum force needed to bending and deformation in order to apply maximum force respectively 0.00341 GPa, 41.5 N, 444.29 N.mm, 18.91 mm and the shear test shear modulus, the maximum force needed to shear Scolymus, shear strength, shear deformation when applying maximum force were calculated respectively 0.002 N/mm2, 82.9 N, 0.0207 N/mm2, 19.15 mm. Information obtained from the mechanical properties of Scolymus in shear test and bending can be used by Scolymus processing factories. Hydrodynamic properties of Scolymus include the riseing time in the water column, average limit speed and average Flotation force exerted on Scolymus in the water column was obtained respectively, 4.67 s, 0.02 m/s and 0.93 Newton. The density of Scolymus was lower than water and as a result it can be graded and transmitted hydraulically and without any harm.
Conclusion: The data obtained from this study can be used for design, optimization, process equipment, transport, sorting and packing of Scolymus.