غیرفعال سازی آنزیم پکتین متیل استراز موجود در آب هویج- کیوی طی فرایند حرارتی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 استادیار دانشکده صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

3 استاد، دانشکده صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

4 دانشیار دانشکده صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

5 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی مواد و طراحی صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: در این پژوهش، با ترکیب آب هویج و کیوی محصولی جدید با ارزش غذایی بالا تولید شد. کدورت در آب هویج-کیوی یک ویژگی مطلوب به شمار می‌رود که پکتین موجود در عصاره مهم‌ترین عامل ایجاد آن است. آنزیم پکتین‌متیل‌استراز با تجزیه-ی پکتین، موجب از بین رفتن کدورت محصول می‌شود. فرایند حرارتی مرسوم‌ترین روش جهت غیرفعال‌سازی این آنزیم است. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی سینتیک غیرفعال‌سازی پکتین‌متیل‌استراز موجود در آب هویج- کیوی طی فراوری حرارتی در دماهای مختلف است.
مواد و روش‌ها: جهت مطالعه‌ی غیرفعال‌سازی آنزیم پکتین‌متیل‌استراز، ابتدا آب هویج-کیویی در حمام آب گرم در دما‌های 60، 70، 80 و 90 درجه سانتی‌گراد، در بازه‌های زمانی مختلف (متناسب با دما) حرارت‌دهی شد. طی فراوری حراتی، میزان فعالیت این آنزیم بر اساس روش ارائه شده توسط کیم بال (1991) اندازه‌گیری شد. شاخص D، شاخص Z و همچنین پارامتر‌های ترمودینامیکی مربوط به تخریب حرارتی پکتین‌متیل‌استراز نیز تخمین زده شدند.
یافته‌ها: بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده، میزان شاخص Z انواع حساس و مقاوم به حرارت پکتین‌متیل‌استراز موجود در آب هویج-کیوی به ترتیب معادل 85/17 و 27/22 درجه سانتی‌گراد تخمین زده شد. میزان انرژی فعال‌سازی مورد نیاز جهت شروع غیرفعال‌سازی انواع حساس و مقاوم به حرارت پکتین‌متیل‌استراز موجود در آب هویج-کیوی به ترتیب معادل 83/356 کیلو ژول بر مول و 17/257 کیلو ژول بر مول محاسبه شد. میزان انتالپی غیرفعال‌سازی انواع حساس به حرارت (1/354 تا 8/353 کیلو ژول بر مول) و مقاوم به حرارت (4/254 تا 1/254 کیلو ژول بر مول) تعیین شد. طی فراوری آب میوه، میزان انتروپی برای تخریب دو نوع حساس و مقاوم به حرارت به ترتیب برابر 79/0 تا 73/0 و 47/0 تا 43/0 تخمین زده شد. همچنین طی فراوری حرارتی، انرژی آزاد گیبس مربوط به غیرفعال‌سازی انواع حساس به حرارت پکتین‌متیل‌استراز (1/91 تا 3/87) و مقاوم به (حرارت 9/97 تا 0/97) نیز محاسبه گردید. این نتایج نشان‌دهنده-ی اثر تغییر دما بر ساختار پروتئینی این آنزیم است. علاوه بر این نیز، میزان درصد موثر مرحله‌ی افزایش دمای محصول در تخریب حرارتی انواع حساس (%22 تا %55) و مقاوم به حرارت (%26 تا %66) پکتین‌متیل‌استراز موجود در آب هویج-کیوی محاسبه شد.
نتیجه گیری: با کاهش دمای مورد نیاز جهت فراوری حرارتی آب هویج از طریق ترکیب آن با کیوی و در نتیجه تعدیل pH محصول و همچنین بررسی اثر مرحله‌ی افزایش دمای محصول بر غیرفعال‌سازی پکتین‌متیل‌استراز، می‌توان از حرارت‌دهی بیش‌از حد فراورده و در نتیجه افت ارزش غذایی، خواص حسی و کیفی و نیز اتلاف انرژی طی فراوری حرارتی آب میوه جلوگیری نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Inactivation of Pectin methylesterase in carrot-kiwi juice during thermal processing

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sadaf Kanudan 1
  • Aman Mohammad Ziaiifar 2
  • Mahdi Kashaninejad 3
  • Yahya Maghsoudlou 4
  • Sara Aghajanzadeh Suraki 5
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: In this study, the mixture of carrot and kiwi juice is introduced as a new food product with high nutritional value. Turbidity is considered as a desirable property in carrot - kiwi juice that is influenced by the presence of released pectin into the extraction. Pectin methylesterase (PME) desterified the pectin that resulted in the turbidity loss in the juice. Thermal processing is known as the most common method to PME inactivation. The aim of this study is to investigate the PME inactivation during carrot - kiwi juice thermal processing at different temperature.
Materials and methods: To study the inactivation of pectin methylesterase, at first the carrot - kiwi juice was heated at 60, 70. 80 and 90 ℃ in different time (proportional to the temperature). Using a thermocople, the changes in the temperature of the sample were recorded and reported in a second. During thermal processing, the activity of the enzyme was measured according to Kimball (1991) method. D-value, Z-value and also thermodynamic parameters of the thermal destruction of PME were calculated.
Results: Based on the obtained results, Z-value of heat labile and stable isoforms of PME in the juice were estimated 17.85℃ and 22.27℃, respectively. The required activation energy to inactivate the heat labile and stable isoforms of PME in the carrot - kiwi juice were calculated 356.83 kJ/mol and 257.17 kJ/mol, respectively. Enthalpy for inactivation of the heat labile (354.1 to 353.8 kJ.mol-1) and stable (254.4 to 254.1 kJ.mol-1) isoforms were estimated. During the carrot - kiwi juice processing, the entropy of the inactivation of the heat labile and stable isoforms were calculated 0.79 to 0.73 K-1.kJ.mol-1 and 0.47 to 0.43 K-1.kJ.mol-1, respectively. Also, the free energy related to the inactivation of the heat labile (91.1 to 87.3 kJ.mol-1) and stable (97.9 to 97.0 kJ.mol-1) isoforms of PME was measured. These results represent the effect of temperature on the protein structure of the enzyme. In addition, the effectiveness percentage of the come up time (CUT) on inactivation of the heat labile (55-22%) and stable (66-22%) isoforms of PME in the carrot - kiwi juice were computed.
Conclusion: The overheating of the product and also loss of nutritional value, organoleptic and qualitative properties and also energy wasting could be prevented by reducing the required thermal processing temperature of the carrot juice by its combination with the kiwi fruit that resulted in pH adjustment and also study the effect of CUT on the PME inactivation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carrot-kiwi juice
  • Thermal processing
  • Pectin methylesterase
  • Thermodynamic properties

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