خصوصیات رئولوژیکی و بافتی بستنی شیر شتر حاوی نشاسته مقاوم ، صمغ عربی و زانتان در فرمولاسیونی جدید

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 فارغ التحصیل ارشد

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

3 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی شیر شتر متفاوت از شیر گاو است، بنابراین خصوصیات محصولات تولید شده از این شیر می‌تواند متفاوت از شیر گاوی باشد. لذا هدف از انجام این تحقیق، بررسی امکان تولید محصولی با ارزش فراسودمند و مطالعه خصوصیات فیزیکوشیمیایی، رئولوژی و حسی بستنی با کیفیت و قابل پذیرش از شیر شتر با کمک نشاسته مقاوم ذرت، صمغ عربی و زانتان بوده است.
مواد و روش: در این تحقیق از نشاسته مقاوم ذرت، صمغ عربی و زانتان به عنوان پایدارکننده استفاده شد. برای انجام عملیات استانداردسازی و تنظیم ماده خشک به میزان 30 درصد کل، اجزاء دخیل در تولید بستنی متشکل از شیر شتر، مخلوط استابیلایزر- امولسیفایر تجاری، پودر شیر پس‌چرخ، شکر و وانیل مخلوط گردید. برای تهیه یک کیلوگرم از این مخلوط شیر شتر با 160 گرم شکر، 3گرم مخلوط استابیلایزر- امولسیفایر، 1 گرم وانیل و بسته به تیمار مورد نظر ( نشاسته مقاوم و صمغ‌ها) مقدار پودر شیر خشک بدون چربی جهت تنظیم ماده خشک، مخلوط و در دمای 68 درجه سانتی‌گراد به مدت 30 دقیقه پاستوریزه شد. سپس به منظور انجام مرحله رساندن، مخلوط پاستوریزه شده در دمای 4 درجه سانتی‌گراد به مدت 24 ساعت نگهداری شد. نمونه‌های بستنی بوسیله یک دستگاه بستنی‌ساز آزمایشگاهی تهیه شده و بسته‌بندی گردید. در نهایت خصوصیات رئولوژیکی و بافتی بستنی شیر شتر حاصل مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
یافته‌ها: کمترین اورران (%02/28) مربوط به نمونه‌ حاوی مقادیر بالای صمغ‌ها و نشاسته مقاوم و بیشترین اورران (%75/50) نیز متعلق به نمونه شاهد بود. بستنی حاوی مقادیر بالای نشاسته مقاوم ذرت و صمغ‌ها، بیشترین و نمونه شاهد کمترین ویسکوزیته را داشتند. نمونه شاهد بیشترین (%63/52) و نمونه حاوی مقادیر بالای صمغ‌ها و نشاسته مقاوم ذرت، کمترین (%02/22) سرعت ذوب شدن را داشتند. صمغ زانتان، عربی و نشاسته مقاوم ذرت تاثیر معنی‌داری بر زمان ذوب اولین قطره در پارامتر خطی داشتند. افزودن صمغ‌ها تاثیر معنی‌داری بر روی سفتی و چسبندگی داشتند ((p < 0.01 اما افزایش نشاسته مقاوم ذرت تاثیر قابل توجهی در چسبندگی نداشت (p>0.01). نتایج حاصل از برازش رفتار رئولوژی نمونه‌های مورد آزمون نشان داد که مدل هرشل بالکی با ضریب همبستگی بالاتر بخوبی رفتار سیال را پیش‌بینی کرد. با افزایش مقادیر صمغ زانتان و عربی ویژگی‌های حسی بستنی شیر شتر به طور قابل توجهی بهبود یافت (p <0.01). درنهایت نتایج بهینه‌سازی نشان داد که بهترین سطوح برای نشاسته مقاوم ذرت در محدوده 48/0 - 50/0، صمغ عربی برابر با 6/0 و صمغ زانتان نیز در محدوده 23/0 انتخاب شد
نتیجه‌‌‌‌گیری: تجزیه و تحلیل صفات مورد سنجش در این پژوهش، نشان از تاثیر قابل توجه و پتانسیل بالای نشاسته مقاوم ذرت، صمغ عربی و زانتان بر ویژگی‌های فیزیکوشیمیایی بستنی حاصل از شیر شتر می‌باشد. لذا با توجه به نتایج حاصله، این طرح می‌تواند به کارخانه‌های تولیدی بستنی پیشنهاد شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Rheological and textural properties of camel milk ice cream by using resistant starch, Arabic and xanthan gums in a new formulation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mojtaba Azari Anpar 1
  • Morteza Khomeiry 2
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Camel milk and its products have different physicochemical properties from those of cow's milk. The present study was aimed to investigate the feasibility of production of a functional ice cream from camel milk by application of resistant starch (RS), Arabic and xanthan gums. The resultant ice creams were evaluated in terms of their physicochemical, rheological, textural and organoleptic properties.
Materials and methods: In this research work, maize RS, Arabic and xanthan gums were used as stabilizers in ice cream formulation. Different ingredients including skim milk powder, stabilizer-emulsifier, sugar, and vanilla were mixed to set the dry matter of camel milk ice cream on 30%. To prepare one kilogram of ice cream mix, camel milk was mixed with 160g sugar, 3g stabilizer-emulsifier, 1 g vanilla powder, and RS or gums; then the dry matter was adjusted by using skim milk powder. Ice cream mix was pasteurized at 68 °C for 30 min and then aged at 4 °C for 24 h. The aged mix was then frozen using a laboratory ice cream machine. Ice cream samples were evaluated for their textural and rheological characteristics.
Results: The least overrun value (28.02%) belonged to the sample containing the maximum amount of gums and RS, while the control sample had the highest overrun (50.75%). Ice cream mix prepared with the maximum amount of RS showed the highest viscosity, while the control sample had the least viscosity. The least (22.02%) and highest (52.63%) melting rates belonged to the samples containing the maximum amounts of RS or gum and control sample, respectively. xanthan and Arabic gums and RS were significantly affected by the first dripping time in the linear parameter. Both gums had a significant effect on hardness and adhesiveness (p < 0.01), while RS had no significant effect on adhesiveness (p>0.01). Results for the fitting of rheological behavior of ice cream mixes showed that the Herschel-Bulkley model could predict the behavior of fluid with a high correlation coefficient. Sensory properties of camel milk ice creams significantly improved by increasing amounts of xanthan and Arabic gums. Results of formulation optimization revealed that the best amounts of RS, Arabic and xanthan gums were in the range of 0.48-0.5, 0.6, and 0.23, respectively.
Conclusion: It was concluded that maize RS, Arabic and xanthan gums had the significant impact on physicochemical properties of camel milk ice cream. These ingredients have the potential to be used as stabilizers in ice cream formulations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Camel milk
  • Ice cream
  • rheological properties
  • Gums
  • Resistant Starch
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