بهینه یابی استخراج موسیلاژ دانه به با کمک امواج فراصوت و با استفاده از روش سطح پاسخ

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 هیأت علمی گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: امروزه روش‌های متعددی جهت استخراج هیدروکلوئیدها، مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است و همچنین اثرات این روش‌های نیز بر روی خصوصیات کاربردی تعداد زیادی از آن‌ها بررسی شده است. بر اساس این مطالعات، مشخص شده است که متغیرهای متعددی بر خصوصیات کاربردی هیدروکلوئیدها مؤثر می باشند که برخی از آن‌ها عبارتند از درجه حرارت، نسبت آب به دانه، pH، غلظت نمک و مدت زمان استخراج."به" گیاهی بومی آسیا است که به میزان گسترده‌ای در شمال ایران رویش می‌یابد. میوه این گیاه حاوی دانه‌هایی می باشد که این دانه ها در پوسته بیرونی خود دارای موسیلاژ قابل استخراج می‌باشند. استخراج موسیلاژ دانه "به" عمدتا توسط روش های متداول صورت گرفته است و اطلاعات اندکی پیرامون استفاده از تکنیک های نوین نظیر حمام فراصوت در استحصال موسیلاژ این دانه موجود است. هدف از این پژوهش ارزیابی تاثیر امواج فراصوت توأم با عواملی نظیر درجه حرارت و pH بر میزان بازدهی استخراج و خصوصیات رئولوژیکی موسیلاژ استخراجی می‌باشد. جهت دستیابی به میزان بهینه بازدهی و ویسکوزیته ظاهری ، بهینه یابی استخراج موسیلاژ دانه "به" با کمک روش سطح پاسخ و طرح مرکب مرکزی چرخش پذیر صورت پذیرفت و شرایط بهینه استخراج، پیش‌بینی گردید.
مواد و روش ها: دانه "به" از اکوتیپ گیلان تهیه گردید. جهت تعیین تأثیر پارامترهای متفاوت بر دو فاکتور بازدهی استخراج و ویسکوزیته ظاهری موسیلاژ استخراج شده از دانه، سه متغیر مستقل شامل درجه حرارت استخراج (ºC55 -ºC25)، مدت زمان تیمار فراصوت (10-3 دقیقه) و pH (8-6) مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. آزمون ها با استفاده از روش سطح پاسخ طراحی گردیدند. ویسکوزیته ظاهری موسیلاژ توسط ویسکومتر چرخان بروکفیلد در 50 دور بر دقیقه و در دمای ثابت ºC25 اندازه‌گیری شد. با استفاده از تجزیه و تحلیل آماری، برای هر پاسخ مدل چندجمله‌ای درجه دوم به دست آمد. ترکیب شیمیایی موسیلاژ دانه "به" نیز توسط روش های استاندارد AOAC تعیین گردید.
یافته‌ها: در میان عوامل مورد بررسی، درجه حرارت و مدت زمان تیمار فراصوت بر بازدهی استخراج و ویسکوزیته، تأثیر معنی داری داشتند در حالیکه pH فاقد این اثر بود (05/0>p). شرایط بهینه پیش‌بینی شده جهت دستیابی به میزان مطلوب راندمان استخراج و ویسکوزیته ظاهری عبارت درجه حرارتºC3/38، مدت زمان تیمار فراصوت 68/7 دقیقه و pH برابر با 35/6 می‌باشد که در آن میزان بازدهی و ویسکوزیته به ترتیب 09/14% و 4/52 میلی‌پاسکال ثانیه بود.
نتیجه گیری: موسیلاژ دانه "به"، رفتار سیال غیر نیوتنی و رقیق شونده با برش (سودوپلاستیک ) نشان داد. بازدهی استخراج و میزان ویسکوزیته موسیلاژ، تحت تأثیر برخی از شرایط استخراج نظیر درجه حرارت و مدت زمان اعمال تیمار فراصوت، قرار داشت بنابراین با تعیین شرایط مناسب برای استخراج این موسیلاژ؛ می‌توان به حد مطلوبی از بازدهی و ویسکوزیته دست یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Optimization of Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Quince seed mucilage using Response Surface Methodology

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Sadeghi Mahoonak 2
  • mohammad Ghorbani 2
  • mahdi Kashani nejad 2
  • Yahya Maghsoudlou 2
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Nowadays, different methods of hydrocolloid extraction has been studied and the effect of these methods has been investigated on functional properties of these hydrocolloids. According to these studies, it has been found that different variables has influence on hydrocolloids properties such as temperature, water to seed ratio, pH, salt concentration and extraction time. “Quince” tree is local tree in Asia and widely grow in north of Iran. The fruit of this tree has seeds which have extractable mucilage on its outer surface. Extraction of “Quince” seeds mucilage always was done by conventional methods and there is limited information about using new technology such as ultrasound on extraction. The objective of present study is to assess the effect of extraction by ultra sound wave in addition to some variables such as temperature and pH on extraction yield and rheological properties of extracted mucilage. In order to obtain optimum extraction yield and apparent viscosity, optimization of “Quince” seed mucilage extraction was done using “Response Surface Methodology” and “Central Composite Rotational Design” and Optimum operating condition of extraction was predicted.
Materials and methods: “Quince” seeds were obtained from Gilan ecotype. In order to determine the effect of different parameters on yield (%) and apparent viscosity (mPa.s) of extracted mucilage, three independent variables including temperature (25–55ºC), ultra-sonication time (3–10 min), and pH (6–8) were investigated. Response Surface Method was used to design Experiments. Apparent viscosity of mucilage were measured by rotational viscometer Brookfield at 50 RPM in constant temperature 25ºC. Using regression analysis, a second-order polynomial model was developed for each response. Chemical composition of extracted mucilage was determined using AOAC standard methods.
Results: among investigated variables, temperature and ultra-sonication time had significant effect on extraction yield and viscosity while pH was not significant (p<0.05). To obtain desirable yield and apparent viscosity, Optimum condition of temperature 38.3◦C, ultra-sonication time of7.68 min and pH of 6.35 was predicted which at this point, extraction yield and viscosity were 14.09% and 52.4 mPa.s, respectively.
Conclusion: “Quince” seed mucilage showed a non-Newtonian and shear thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior. Extraction yield and apparent viscosity has affected by some extraction parameters such as temperature and ultra-sonication time so optimum yield and viscosity can access with determining suitable conditions of mucilage extraction.
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ultra sound
  • Extraction
  • Quince seed mucilage
  • RSM
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